한약이 호흡기,폐질환에 도움되는 원리는 다음과 같습니다.
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염증관련 신호조절(항염증)을 한다는 연구논문입니다.
Chinese Herbs and Repurposing Old Drugs as Therapeutic Agents in the Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Pulmonary Diseases
Chien-Chung Yang 1 2 , Chuen-Mao Yang 3 4 5
Several pro-inflammatory factors and proteins have been characterized that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma, induced by oxidative stress, cytokines, bacterial toxins, and viruses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as secondary messengers and are products of normal cellular metabolism. Under physiological conditions, ROS protect cells against oxidative stress through the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis, which is important for proliferation, viability, cell activation, and organ function. However, overproduction of ROS is most frequently due to excessive stimulation of either the mitochondrial electron transport chain and xanthine oxidase or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. NADPH oxidase activation and ROS overproduction could further induce numerous inflammatory target proteins that are potentially mediated via Nox/ROS-related transcription factors triggered by various intracellular signaling pathways. Thus, oxidative stress is considered important in pulmonary inflammatory processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that redox signals can induce pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Thus, therapeutic strategies directly targeting oxidative stress may be effective for pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Therefore, drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties may be beneficial to these diseases. Recent studies have suggested that traditional Chinese medicines, statins, and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor agonists could modulate inflammation-related signaling processes and may be beneficial for pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In particular, several herbal medicines have attracted attention for the management of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the pharmacological effects of these drugs to dissect how they induce host defense mechanisms against oxidative injury to combat pulmonary inflammation. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death can be protected via the induction of HO-1 by these drugs. The main objective of this review is to focus on Chinese herbs and old drugs to develop anti-inflammatory drugs able to induce HO-1 expression for the management of pulmonary inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: HO-1; Nrf2; ROS; inflammatory mediators; pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells; tracheal smooth muscle cells.
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